2022 Publications

Bramley, A., Forsyth, A., & McKenna, L. (2021)  Development and evaluation of Entrustable Professional Activities embedded in an e-portfolio for work-based assessment in community and public health dietetics.  Health and Social Care, 00, 1-12.  https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13967 


Entrustable professional activities (EPAs) is a recent concept that helps operationalise competency-based education. In this paper, we report on the development of EPAs and incorporation into an e-portfolio for work-based assessment of final year dietetics students in a community and public health professional placement. We aimed to determine the utility of the EPAs for work-based assessment in this context. We used action research methodology to conduct broad consultation with students and supervisors using anonymous surveys and focus groups to understand their beliefs and attitudes towards work-based assessment. Consequently, 40 EPAs with an accompanying four-point entrustment scale were developed and mapped to the National Competency Standards for Dietitians in Australia. The EPAs and assessment tool were piloted and evaluated via an anonymous online user survey across three cohorts of students (n = 133) and supervisors (n = 67). Following mediocre pilot year evaluation results, EPAs were revised and reduced in number. While students positively evaluated the e-portfolio, their appraisal of the EPAs and entrustment scale was less positive compared to supervisors. Supervisor evaluation of the EPA-based e-portfolio supported the validity, feasibility and acceptability of this novel assessment method in a community and public health setting. Assessment using EPAs, and the resulting educational data collected by the tool, offers potential for individual learners to identify areas needing development during placement, as well as potential to inform curriculum improvements and increase understanding of learning opportunities and outcomes for dietetic students in community and public health settings. 

Robinson, M., Lithgow, K., & MacGregor, C. (2022)  Joining students on their SLICCs journey.  Proceedings 2022 Canadian Engineering Education Association Conference.  Accessed from http://oxford-abstracts.s3.amazonaws.com/279cd5a4-602d-40f7-82b1-3c5b1c3e3105.pdf


At Waterloo Engineering, we have great student leaders who go far beyond the average of 120 hours needed for a course credit in leadership roles,  but currently receive no academic credit for this work. The SLICC (Student-Led, Individually-Created Course) model, developed by professors at the University of Edinburgh, is a great way to help the student leaders reflect on their own leadership experiences in a personalized format, producing a product that is of value to them. That is the motivation for a new course, offered in the winter 2022 term for the first time, GENE 415: Practical Analysis of Student Leadership Experience. 

As instructors, we were completely new to the SLICC model. After some basic training in the mechanics of the SLICC process with folks at Waterloo who are implementing it in their courses and support from folks at the University of Edinburgh, we put ourselves through a SLICC project with our students. This was done with lots of support from a senior educational developer from the Centre for Teaching Excellence. 

This is the story of SLICCs being implemented by two seasoned instructors and their educational journey to guide ten senior engineering student leaders through a new course designed to acknowledge, through course credit, their substantial leadership experiences throughout their undergraduate studies in engineering. This SLICC experience was completed at the height of the Omicron wave of COVID-19 in Ontario, revealing both the benefits and challenges of this self-directed learning model being implemented in an online environment and then shifting to in-person.

Rowley, J. & Munday, J. (2022)  An arts-based learning model: Synergies of artist mentorship, eportfolio and discovering "possible self".  The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 51(1), https://doi.org/10.55146/ajie.2022.30 


A successful learning model was adopted in a middle-years school in regional Australia, whereby Aboriginal artists are employed to work with students in a mentoring capacity creating original artworks and imparting knowledge of cultural heritage, symbols and techniques. ePortfolio thinking through reflective narratives was added to the art making/learning process, assisting students to establish a sense of possible self, both cultural and future thinking. Described here is school-based applied research where the learning model emerged as researchers collected qualitative data to measure the impact of webpages (the ePortfolio) to the art making. Data include interviews with key stakeholders, classroom observations, student artworks/stories, and webpages accompanying the culminating exhibition. Results showed that student engagement improved and cultural awareness was raised. The implications for pedagogy and practice include transferring the model to music, dance and media arts. 

Janssens, O., Haerens, L., Valcke, M., Beeckman, D., Pype, P., & Embo, M. (2022)  The role of eportfolios in supporting learning in eight healthcare disciplines: A scoping review.  Nurse Education in Practice, 63, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2022.103418 


Aim: This scoping review aims at providing a summary of available knowledge about the role of ePortfolios in
scaffolding learning in eight healthcare disciplines to identify main concepts, best practices, and knowledge gaps.
Background: ePortfolios are well established in scaffolding learning in many healthcare disciplines. Yet, an
overview of the ePortfolio literature in the context of healthcare education doesn’t exist.
Design and methods: A scoping review of ePortfolio use in the following healthcare disciplines was conducted:
audiology, dental hygiene, midwifery, nursing (associate degree and bachelor), occupational therapy, podiatry,
and speech therapy. Eight databases were systematically searched. By structuring the data, five themes were
identified: (1) contexts, (2) research populations and samples, (3) ePortfolio platforms used and objectives, (4)
benefits and challenges in the use of ePortfolios, and (5) recommendations derived from literature in the use of
ePortfolios. The themes were further specified with sub-themes. The themes help meeting the aim of the scoping
review to develop a structured overview of ePortfolio use and research.
Results: Thirty-seven articles were included. Samples predominantly involved students and fewer mentors, ed-
ucators, and graduates. ePortfolios were used to support learning in the context of healthcare workplaces (n =
17), educational institutions (n = 14), or both (n = 6). Different objectives of ePortfolio use were derived from
literature and categorized into eight themes: (1) to document and evidence competency, (2) reflection, (3)
feedback and assessment, (4) (inter)professional collaboration, (5) support Continuous Professional Develop-
ment, (6) bridging the gap between theory and practice, (7) employment, and (8) certification. These objectives
were in turn coupled to two identified types of ePortfolio platforms: “store and communicate” and “work and
learn” ePortfolios. The description of benefits and challenges formed a substantial part of the literature and data
were mapped into five themes to structure the data: (1) technology, (2) collaboration, (3) competency devel-
opment (before and after graduation), (4) employment, and (5) quality of patient care. Although the benefits
outweighed the challenges, important challenges were identified, e.g., the high time investment required when
working with an ePortfolio, low digital literacy, lack of internet access.
Conclusions: Studies mainly focused on perceptions (n = 32). Only a few studies explored measurable outcomes
(i.e., competencies or behavioral indicators). Because ePortfolios are used by different ePortfolio users, in
different contexts, and with different objectives, new research directions are needed to investigate how specific
features, such as collaboration tools, feedback tools, or assessment tools can improve the role of ePortfolios in
supporting healthcare education.

Van Ostaeyen, S., Embo, M., Schellens, T., & Valcke, M. (2022)  Training to support eportfolio users during clinical placements: a scoping review.  Medical Science Educator, https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-022-01583-0


ePortfolios are frequently used to support students’ competency development, and teachers’ and clinical mentors’ supervision during clinical placements. User training is considered a critical success factor for the implementation of these ePortfolios. However, there is ambiguity about the design and outcomes of ePortfolio user training. A scoping review was conducted to consolidate evidence from studies describing the design of ePortfolio user training initiatives and their outcomes. The search yielded 1180 articles of which 16 were included in this review. Based on the results, an individual, ongoing training approach which grounds in a fitting theoretical framework is recommended. 

Kirby, M.M., Downer, T., Slade, C., Fisher, M.B., Isbel, S.T., Siddiqui, Z.S., McAllister, L., Miller, A. & Brown Wilson, C. (2022)  A call to action for eProfessionalism: developing the use of ePortfolio with emerging health and education practitioners.  Journal of Computing in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-022-09326-1 


The purpose of this study was to identify educational, technological, and professional consequences of ePortfolio use that were intended, unintended, positive and negative. Ethical approval was obtained from seven universities in accordance with institutional guidelines established in accordance with Australia’s National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research. A mixed methods design was employed to survey staff and invite them to participate in a focus group or interview. Online questionnaires were distributed across seven universities to 22 volunteer respondents drawn from academic teachers in both disciplines. Following completion and quantification of questionnaire data, respondents were invited to participate in a either a focus group or interview with one of the researchers. Merton’s sociological model was adopted in the study as it informed a conceptual framework used to examine the impact of unintended consequences that emerged when building a professional online presence. This theory was used to identify the full range of ePortfolio learning and teaching practices emerging as a multi-function, complex system, within domains and purpose of ePortfolios such as information systems, health or education disciplines. Results indicated a significant challenge, namely there is no single set of guidelines that would support teachers and students when engaging in learning and teaching activities to improve protection of private data relating to vulnerable people. Digital literacy of academics and students is variable and may impact on data privacy. Data gathered will be used to inform development of guidelines on the use and publication of information collected in ePortfolios to protect vulnerable people. 

Sibson, R. & Riebe, L. (2022)  The role of ePortfolios in shaping professional identity and employability. In M. Rayner, T. Webb (Eds) Sport Management Education: Global Perspectives and Implications for Practice. Routledge. (pp. 45-57) DOI: 10.4324/9781003140078-4.


The purpose of this chapter is to explore how employability capital and professional identity can be conceptualised through an ePortfolio, and how an ePortfolio can be used in the context of sport management HE to shape professional identity and therefore enhance employability.  The following section begins by first, examining the contructs of employability and its relationship to professional identity.  Next, literature that explores how sport management HE curricula have been developed to improve graduate employability is elaborated.  Then, the use of ePortfolios in HE, particularly in the development of professional identity, is discussed.  Finally, a case study explaining how ePortfolios have been implemented at the authors' university within the sport management curricula is presented.

Hope, D. L. & Campbell, C. (2022)  Sustainability via PebblePad digitization of pharmacy practice resources. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 14 (2), 173-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2021.11.026



Digitization of learning and teaching resources allows for paper-free, digitally-enabled approaches to learning. While PebblePad is well recognized as an electronic portfolio platform, this study aimed to evaluate PebblePad for delivery of foundational workshop materials to provide sustainable and ongoing student access.


From 2017, all workshops in a foundational pharmacy practice course were transferred from a paper-based manual to a modular digitized format hosted in PebblePad. An electronic survey tool assessed students' experiences with the platform. The voluntary and anonymous survey sought participant opinions on use, usability, ways of using, and reflection on using PebblePad on a five-point Likert-type scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). Participants were asked to identify techniques they used to become familiar with PebblePad and the ways in which they used the platform.


From 2017 to 2019, 81 (45.3%) of 179  second-year pharmacy students participated in the research. Students most strongly agreed with statements related to comfort with online technologies for learning (n = 46/80, 57.5%), ease of use of PebblePad (n = 41/80, 51.3%), and having sufficient support from teaching staff (n = 39/78, 50%). The primary technique for becoming familiar with PebblePad was individual guidance from the teacher. The main use was to complete required workbook templates. Free-text comments demonstrated overwhelming support for PebblePad used in this teaching context.


PebblePad provided a valuable and sustainable platform for hosting digitized foundational pharmacy practice workshop resources.


2021 Publications

Carter, S. (2021)  ePortfolios as a platform for evidencing employability and building professional identity: A literature review.  International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 22 (4), 463-474.  


This paper reviews the theoretical background and contextualized application of ePortfolios in tertiary education.
Higher education graduates are expected to provide evidence demonstrating a complex skill set as they transition to employment, and ePortfolios are a potential tool with which to do this. This literature review explores current understanding and contemporary practices for how ePortfolios can be curated to demonstrate student competency in the desired skills. It also considers how to choose between ePortfolio platforms and how ePortfolio outputs are designed and structured to align student learning outcomes and associated evidence of student ability with student professional identity, using Australian nursing/midwifery and engineering discipline case studies to identify relevant industry-based skills as examples. While the typology of ePortfolios is consistently recognized, the implementation in teaching varies across contexts. When integrating ePortfolios into the curriculum, many elements must be addressed, including assessment strategies, pedagogical approaches, integration of professional identity, and resourcing. 

Atkins, P. & Sykes, K. (2021)  Embedding holistic learning: Designing curated eLearning processes for social work students.  In Gregory, S., Warburton, S., & Schier, M. (Eds) Back to the Future - ASCILITE '21.  Proceedings ASCILITE 2021 in Armidale. (pp 47-53).


La Trobe University is implementing a new Social Work course. Several evidence-based curriculum design and teaching innovations have been identified as having the potential to support both new explicit and implicit curriculum. This paper reports on the introduction of an innovative learning technology solution to promote a student centred learning approach. The use of the technology is novel to social work coursework education so evaluating the impact on supporting learning outcomes addresses a current gap in the research literature. Supporting a student centred
approach, the innovation amalgamates ePortfolios with Moodle LMS to capture learning activities and assessments in their own digital space. The project has been a collaboration between the Social Work discipline and Technology Enhanced Learning Services. Findings from our evaluation show that the use of ePortfolios is consistent with transformational learning principles whereby the software application enables critical reflection, a sense of ownership over learning and the opportunity for students to be creative. The innovation also empowers students to develop a portfolio of curated reference material along with indivdiualised evidence of knowledge that can be utilised beyond graduation for potential employers or opportunities for further study. 

Mitchell, L., Campbell, C., Rigby, R. & Williams, L.T. (2021)  Giving students an eDGE: Forcusing on ePortfolios for graduate employability.  Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 12(2).


Universities are placing increased attention on providing students with ePortfolios and online teaching platforms to enhance learning and employability. The aim of this paper is to investigate the views of dietetic students on the usefulness of PebblePad as a learning platform and ePortfolio tool for evidencing graduate competency and enhancing employability. This research was conducted within a multi-component design-based research framework. PebblePad was introduced to the [blinded] Bachelor of Nutrition and Dietetics four-year degree in 2016. Students in years 1 and 3 enrolled in courses utilising PebblePad in 2016 and 2017 were invited to complete an online survey at the conclusion of each course. Surveys were completed by 116 students (2016 n=50; 2017 n=66). Students perceived that PebblePad could impact on their employability through supporting their learning as well as assisting their understanding and competency development as a professional. This was more evident in Year 3 students than Year 1. The aspects of PebblePad perceived as most beneficial for employability were the ability to: 1) collate experiences and assessment; 2) evidence dietetic competencies via ‘tagging’; and 3) facilitate reflection. The least beneficial aspects were: 1) usability and navigation of PebblePad; 2) lack of clarity around using PebblePad to evidence employability; and 3) belief that required reflections were excessive. ePortfolios and learning platforms such as PebblePad are perceived by students to be useful for evidencing employability, with potential improvements in assessment design further enhancing their use. 

Tomkins, A., Sherratt, C., & Patel, M. (2021)  Physician trainee mistrust of the eportfolio and workplace based assessment process.  Journal of Contemporary Medical Education, 11(8), 01-05.

Objective: The Electronic-portolio (ePortfolio) has played a major role in postgraduate medical training in the United Kingdom (UK) for many years, having been created to help facilitate lifelong learning. Its use is multifaceted in supporting development through formative and summative assessment, quality assurance and promotion of self-reflection in order to enhance future performance. A recent high profile medicolegal case in the UK illuminated pre-existing issues with the ePortfolio. This study, contacted at the time when the medico legal case was in the appeals process, aimed to establish trainees’ experiences of the ePortfolio, including their perceptions of the trust they held in the system.

Methods: As part of a larger study into physician trainees’ perceptions of workplace based assessments value, physician specialty trainees (n=14) attended two focus groups to discuss their perceptions of the ePortfolio process. Grounded Theory
methods were applied. Data analysis commenced immediately following collection of the first focus group transcript, in line with Grounded Theory principles (Glaser, 1978). This supported theoretical sampling; allowing the initial data to be used to inform the subsequent steps taken. Line by line coding and memo writing was used throughout, with themes being generated directly out of the data and analysis continuing until theoretical saturation was achieved.

Results: Participants identified both benefits and limitations of the ePortfolio. Key concerns related to the permanency of documentation and the potential for negative training, and subsequent career progression implications. The publicised medicolegal case challenged participant trust in the system, with individuals reporting concerns that the ePortfolio suppressed wider organisational issues.

Conclusion: Participants identified several factors which appear to impact upon trust of the ePortfolio, which may potentially subvert any benefits associated with its use. Permanency of documentation of suboptimal performance and the identification
of inherent biases existing in the ePotfolio appear to be the major driving concerns which threaten optimal engagement with the ePorftolio. The introduction of clearer guidelines for reflective practice and ePortfolio engagement may enhance future trust in the ePortfolio. 

Cain, M., & Campbell, C. (2021)  Creating greater awareness of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers in Initial Teacher Education.  Australian Journal of Teaching, 46(7), 70-85.


Throughout their initial teacher education training in Australia, students are informed about the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST) and the necessity of gathering evidence to achieve these for teacher registration. Whilst the use of digital technologies as tools for reflection has become increasingly popular, there remains a paucity of research around the types of digital technologies that students use to document their ability to achieve accreditation requirements. This study presents details of how PebblePad, a specialised ePortfolio platform, can assist teacher education students to gain increased awareness about the 37 APST descriptors through the use of tagging. Results demonstrate that students found tagging an invaluable practice and that they recognised the importance of using this ePortfolio platform after graduation to build on their growth as educators in alignment with the APST. In this way, the study addresses a significant gap in teacher education literature in this era of accountability. 

Lehman, R.M., & Rogers-Cooper, J. (2021, August)  Evolving the loop: The role of ePortfolio in building 21st century student learning outcomes (Occasional Paper No.55). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois and Indiana University, National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment.


One of the many new directions to explore in ePortfolio practice is the relationship between ePortfolio as a classroom  pedagogy and its potential to advance general education outcomes assessment. This direction is especially urgent in relation to the increasing demands by employers for competency-focused, higher-order skills, as well as demands by accreditors for evidence of growth in student learning during degree completion. In this paper, we discuss how two- or four-year colleges might address these demands through our experiences at LaGuardia Community College (City University of New York). The recent redesign of our college’s outcomes assessment process through an innovation cycle we call “Evolving the Loop,” in addition to simultaneous and intentional innovations in our assessment and ePortfolio practice reinforced the culture of LaGuardia as a learning college. A key decision we made was in adopting new Core Competencies and Communication Abilities, especially Digital Communication, to better collaborate with our next generation, Digication ePortfolio platform. Beginning with an overview of the program, we describe the program’s journey of Evolving the Loop through the creation of Core ePortfolios and provide concrete examples of how interlinked assessment and ePortfolio practice can support twenty-first century student learning outcomes. 

Donnelly, R. (2021) Embedding eportfolios in programme-level assessment in business disciplines: Reflections on a pilot project. ePortoflios in Ireland: A special issue of the Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning.


This practice report reflects on a pilot project embedding ePortfolios in programme-level assessment in a number of Business disciplines across the College of Business in the Technological University Dublin. The pilot was important for a triad of reasons; firstly for the university, positioning of an ePortfolio programme level strategy required an understanding of the importance of professional development and support structures for staff and students, and guidance on scaling from a pilot project to a full-scale implementation. Secondly, for staff, highlighting the purpose of the ePortfolio and particular effective teaching and learning strategies was crucial e.g. personalization for increasing student engagement and reflective practice. Finally, for students, an ePortfolio can allow learning beyond the scope of a particular module to highlight holistic learning across a programme, and can be utilized for showcasing of work and in procuring future employment - it is suitable to practical, critical and creative thinking. This report explores implications for practice for staff seeking clarity on establishing the purpose (for both assessment and reflection) and audience (UG and PG students) for a programme-based ePortfolio. Reflections include the professional development support that paralleled the adoption of the pilot and strategies that can be put in place to move from an initial project to a scalable implementation across a College, and the challenges of engaging critically in programme-level assessment. Recommendations are for educational developers, those working in learning development and learning technologists who support academic staff in decision-making around ePortfolio integration to programme-level assessment strategies. 

Holtzman, D.M., Kraft, E.M., & Small, E. (2021)  Use of ePortfolios for making hiring decisions: A comparison of the results from representatives of large and small businesses.  Journal of Work Applied Management. DOI10.1108/JWAM-01-2021-0001 


Purpose – The purpose of the study was to determine if representatives of small and large businesses in New Jersey believe portfolios would be valuable for evaluating applicants as part of the hiring process and whether portfolios would help applicants in the hiring process.

Design/methodology/approach – Representatives from 109 small and 71 large businesses in New Jersey were surveyed about using portfolios in the hiring process.

Findings – Representatives from both small and large businesses believe that the submission of a portfolio of exemplary work may help the applicant and the employer in the hiring process.

Research limitations/implications – The study limitations are that the respondents had different definitions of ePortfolio, it was a convenience survey, and the researchers used two sets of data. For future research, conducting a study in a major region of the world would be a significant contribution to learning about the viewsof business representatives globally regarding the use of ePortfolios in the hiring decision process.

Practical implications – The authors recommend that educational institutions encourage students to create portfolios as part of their career preparation to gain an edge as applicants in the job market. EPortfolios are an emerging tool to help employers in the hiring decision process.

Social implications – EPortfolios would provide evidence of the employee’s fit to the position, thus eliminating a mismatch of the employee’s skill set and qualifications to the job. The ePortfolio aids the employer in seeing the candidate’s skills for the position.

Originality/value – This paper adds to the limited research about the emergence of ePortfolios having a role in human resource decision making.

Keywords - ePortfolio, Job applicants, Employers, Workplace skills, Hiring, Recruitment

Paper type - Research paper 

Lu, H. (2021)  Electronic portfolios in Higher Education: A review of the literature.  European Journal of Education and Pedagogy. 2(3), 96-101.    


Electronic Portfolios have become a popular pedagogical approach on the tertiary educational landscape worldwide. In the United States, Association of American Colleges and Universities added this powerful pedagogical practice to its set of high-impact practices in 2016. High-impact practices have the potential to generate transformative learning experiences and lead to significant impacts on students’ academic achievements. Higher education has a responsibility to provide students with the means to support their professional learning and development as a continuous and lifelong process. Countless research studies have identified a number of benefits from utilizing ePortfolios in learning that are grounded in a variety of learning theories. As ePortfolios are gaining momentum as a preferred way to demonstrate students’ learning and competencies, it is crucial for educators to fully understand the advantages of ePortfolios and guide students to produce quality and competitive ePortfolios.

McManus, R. (2021)  Lessons from reflective journaling in undergraduate ePortfolios.  Irish Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 6(1), 29-36. DOI https://doi.org/10.22554/ijtel.v6i1.81


This article explores and critically reflects on the use of the ePortfolio as a space for student reflection, demonstrating its utility as a Teaching and Learning (T&L) tool for both learners and educators. It draws on the author’s experience of using ePortfolios for assessment purposes, incorporating a reflective component, over a four-year period within an Irish university. Particular emphasis is placed on the experiences and outcomes of two groups, each with approximately 35 students, who undertook undergraduate modules between February and May 2020. The discussion develops a number of aspects of the ePortfolio experience, considering benefits to both learners and educators, with specific reference to group work, to struggling students, and to the role which these reflective journals played during the early stages of the Covid crisis. In conclusion, some best-practice guidelines are proposed, focusing on effective module design and pedagogical scaffolding, and points for further consideration are raised.

Whitney, I., Rowley, J., & Bennett, D. (2021)  Developing student agency: ePortfolio reflections of future career among aspiring musicians.  International Journal of ePortfolio, 11(1), 53-65.


Career preparation has gained increasing prominence in higher music education as governments and students alike demand a stronger focus on workplace readiness. While the existing graduate metrics work  well  for professions  which feature  traditional,  full-time  jobs,  the  potential  for  such  a  linear career path is limited for graduate musicians by fierce competition for work and a labor market in which  precarious  work  is  the  norm. Music  graduates  tend  to experience  a  career-long  portfolio  of part-time, casual, and contract-based work within and outside the music industry. This article reports on an innovative internship program that engaged student musicians in an in-curricular intervention related to their career thinking. The program and its assessments purposefully placed students into authentic learning contexts where their musical skills and their understanding of being a professional were  challenged  and  expanded. Using  the  examples  of  scaffolded assessment  tasks  including  an ePortfolio  and  a  presentation  of  on-the-job learning,  the  article  highlights students’  reflections  on how  the  internship  engaged  their  career  thinking  and  how the  ePortfolio  process helped  them  to curate  that  thinking.  Students  reported  that  the  combination  of  an ePortfolio  and scaffolded  career thinking  assessments  enabled  them  to  realize  the  relevance  of  their  learning  tasks  and to  create clearer  career  connections.  Implications  for  the  use  of  ePortfolios  within  WIL  (work  integrated learning) are discussed.  

Hunt, P., Leijen, A., & van der Schaaf, M. (2021) Automated feedback is nice and human presence makes it better: Teachers' perceptions of feedback by means of an eportfolio enhanced with learning analytics.  Education Sciences, 11, 278 - 290.  https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060278

Abstract: While there is now extensive research on feedback in the context of higher education,
including pre-service teacher education, little has been reported regarding the use of feedback from
teachers to other teachers. Moreover, literature on the potential advantages that the use of technology,
for example electronic portfolios and learning analytics, has in improving feedback in the in-service
workplace practices, is also sparse. Therefore, the aim of this exploratory case study was to explore
how in-service teachers perceived the peer feedback they received and provided through a webbased
electronic portfolio during a professional development course carried out in their workplace.
Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 38 teachers who received feedback through a
learning analytics enhanced electronic portfolio and from 23 teachers who received feedback only by
the electronic portfolio. Additionally, one individual and four focus group interviews were conducted
with 15 teachers who were the feedback providers. Several common topics were identified in the
interviews with the feedback receivers and providers, involving the benefits and challenges of human
interaction and the flexibility of the feedback process that the electronic portfolio offered. The results
also revealed better feedback experience within the group of teachers who received extra feedback
by means of learning analytics. It is concluded that although an electronic portfolio provides a useful
tool in terms of flexibility in the provision and receipt of feedback, the need for human interaction
was acknowledged.

McDermott-Dalton, G. (2021)  Putting the 'e' in portfolio design: an intervention research project investigating how design students and faculty might jointly reimagine the design portfolio activity.  International Journal of Technology and Design Education.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-020-09640-8 

The use of portfolios is deeply embedded in practice within Design education. However, as trends change and technology improves, tensions often arise in the interpretation and presentation of the portfolio activity. Additionally, as more and more digital artefacts are produced by design students, the question arises as to whether the traditional portfolio could be accompanied or replaced by an eportfolio, which could present students’ digital artefacts in a structured fashion. This research investigates how students and faculty in the Design Department of one higher education institution might come together to examine and re-model practices in the context of the design portfolio activity. The study uses Cultural Historical Activity Theory with a Change Laboratory methodology and expansive learning to build transformative agency amongst those involved in the design portfolio activity, with a view to reaching consensus of what a future model of the design eportfolio might look like. Findings indicate that the methodology was successful in collaboratively examining work practices and exposing tensions relating to the current portfolio activity. A tentative future model of a design eportfolio was presented to the group, using institute graduate attributes to provide structure. While the lack of a designer’s ‘personality’ when using a generic eportfolio tool was pointed out, it was agreed that having student work available and accessible in a structured digital format was a requirement for today’s design graduate. Finally, this research approach is considered useful for educational research projects that require collaborative input from various stakeholders into changes in work practices. 

Mitchell, L., Campbell, C., Somerville, M., Cardell, E., & Williams, L. T. (2021). Enhancing graduate employability through targeting ePortfolios to employer expectations: A systematic scoping review. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability,12(2), 82-98. Available at:  https://ojs.deakin.edu.au/index.php/jtlge/article/view/1003/1060

Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are increasingly being used in university degrees to showcase graduate employability. However, evidence on employers’ views and use of ePortfolios has not been synthesised. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on employer, industry representative and university educator views on the use of ePortfolios in recruiting graduates, including recommended ePortfolio content. Six databases were searched to identify original research on views and utilisation of ePortfolios published since 2000. Studies were screened in duplicate, and the full texts of 163 articles reviewed. Included studies were synthesised to  eveal common themes. The 17 included studies represented a range of industries and most were conducted in the USA (n=10). Awareness of ePortfolios was low, as was use within recruitment. Perceived advantages of ePortfolios in recruitment included showcasing key skills/work; ability to comprehensively assess and differentiate between candidates quickly; and accessibility. The main disadvantages were the time taken to review, excessive information and establishing authenticity. Recommended ePortfolios content included samples of professional work, reflections, videos and photos. Inclusion of typical resume content, work experience, skills, transcripts, certificates, references, supervisor evaluations were important, as was a clear and concise structure.

Stoten, D.W. (2021), "Navigating heutagogic learning: mapping the learning journey in management education through the OEPA model", Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, Vol. ahead-of-print. 

Available at: https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIT-07-2020-0038


The purpose of this conceptual paper is to advocate the adoption of heutagogic principles within management education and to show how it could be implemented.


This paper is the outcome of a review of the literature on learning theory and management education.


This paper demonstrates how heutagogic principles have been introduced in three areas: entrepreneurial education, executive coaching and e-learning.


This paper makes an original contribution to the discourse on heutagogy through the OEPA model that maps the heutagogic learning journey.

Bramley AL, Thomas CJ, Mc Kenna L,Itsiopoulos C. (2021) E-portfolios and Entrustable ProfessionalActivities to support competency-based education in dietetics. Nursing and Health Sciences, 23, 148–156. 

Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/nhs.12774

The concept of Entrustable Professional Activities, recently pioneered in medical education, has emerged to support the implementation of competency-based education. Although competency-based frameworks are widely used in healthcare professional education to develop outcomes-based curricula, assessment of student competency in professional placement settings remains challenging. The novel concept of Entrustable Professional Activities together with established methods of competency assessment, namely e-portfolios and self-assessment, was implemented in the La Trobe University Dietetic program in 2015–2016. This study aimed to appraise the e-portfolio and evaluate the use of Entrustable Professional Activities to assess competence. A mixed-methods evaluation, using qualitative and quantitative surveys with follow-up structured consultations, was conducted with final year dietetics students and their supervisors. Dietetics students were comfortable with Entrustable Professional Activities and competency-based assessment, whereas supervisors preferred Entrustable Professional Activity based assessment. All stake-holders valued student self-assessment and the ongoing use of structured e-portfolios to develop and document competency. The use of structured e-portfolios, student self-assessment, and the emerging concept of Entrustable Professional Activities are useful tools to support dietetics student education in professional placement settings.

2020 Publications

Yeo, N. & Rowley, J. (2020)  'Putting on a show' non-placement WIL in the performing arts: Documenting professional rehearsal and performance using eportfolio reflections.  Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 17(4). Available at:https://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol17/iss4/5  

This study explores the utility of employing a student-created experiential narrative ePortfolio as a multi-modal tool for reflective practice in WIL. It does so by examining a case study situated within the performing arts, where WIL discourses are rarely adopted, and few examples are present in the literature. This paper introduces a circular mentoring framework that extends Kolb’s experiential learning model, whereby learning is facilitated through the interchange of roles through rehearsal and reflection. In this study, participants prepared and performed an opera in a professional venue over a five-day period of intense creative studio work. The 2017 and 2018 Inclusion Projectis an innovative teaching and learning opportunity that offered authentic industry-based experience to undergraduate music students in a closely monitored, non-placement WIL setting. Participants (n=18) undertaking a semester long elective, reported their experience through online journaling in an ePortfolio allowing them to create narrative responses. A qualitative analysis using narrative inquiry on the ePortfolio reflections indicated a direct benefit for student’s career readiness as creative artists.  

Scriven, R. & Strampel, K. (2020)  ICED 2020 proceedings: Collaboration in curriculum design: Embedding employability for future graduate success.  ETH Learning and Teaching Journal, 2(2), 497 - 501.

This paper describes the implementation of a model of employability in a school of nursing and midwifery at an Australian university. The model was developed collaboratively with staff from various centres of the university, academic leadership, and academic staff, in response to decreasing employment figures and student satisfaction with graduate outcomes.

Farrell, O. (2020)  (e)Portfolio: A history.  In S.Gregory, S.Warburton, & M.Parkes (Eds) ACILITE's First Virtual Conference. Proceedings ASCILITE 2020 in Armidale (pp. 289-294).

This paper traces the evolution of the concept of portfolio from the Renaissance to the present day. Over time the meaning of portfolio evolved from its origins as a case for holding loose papers to other contexts such as finance, government and education. Portfolios evolved from paper to electronic, from local network to the world wide web. The decade from 2000-2010 was a period when technology became part of mainstream society and educational technology become part of mainstream higher education, and portfolios became a ubiquitous assessment. From 2010-2020, a shift towards an emphasis on pedagogy and the student learning experience occurred in eportfolio research and practice. The history of (e)portfolio in higher education shows that the higher education system will continue to gradually evolve, incorporating concepts, technology and approaches that are compatible rather than transformative.

Bolton, E. & Emery, R. (2020) Using educational technology to support students' real world learning.  In: Morley, D.A. & Jamil, M.G. (Eds) Applied pedagogies for Higher Education. Palgrave Macmillan: Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-46951-1_15 

For future employability and professional practices, students “require a wider skill set that will enable them to thrive in an increasingly digital world” (JISC. Effective practice with e-portfolios. Bristol: University of Bristol. Retrieved from https://issuu.com/jiscinfonet/docs/jisc_effective_practice_with_e-portfolios_2008 (2008), p. 5). In this regard, educators need to facilitate authentic digital learning experiences for students. This chapter explores technologies that augment students’ experience, development and readiness for employability. This chapter looks at how educational technology is used to simulate the workplace by capturing and reflecting on actions in real world situations, while recognising that using technology of the workplace can facilitate learning outcomes.

Three case studies look at the use of social media, developing reflective e-portfolios and recording simulations to support reflective learning.

Kaminski, J. (2020)  The promise of PebblePad for Dynamic Learning.  Canadian Journal of Nursing Informatics. 15(3). https://tinyurl.com/yy9vctqs 

ePortfolios are versatile platforms that support nursing education in a variety of ways. ePortfolios can be used as assessment, credential, learning and showcase spaces where artifacts can be collected to produce an impressive body of work by the time students finish their degree. These artifacts can include aesthetic creative work, practice journals, case study analyses, and other assigned work. “The contents are selected, recorded, organised and presented in a meaningful way over time, to be used by the student in their reflective considerations, with tutors and peers where appropriate, and as a means for presenting themselves with greater depth and individual richness to others (e.g. research funders, potential employers). It is a place for constructing and telling myriad stories to diverse audiences” (O’Toole, 2013, p. 3).

Brown, A. & Rooney, N. (2020)  Large scale digital innovation in South Australian nursing and midwifery programs.  Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 27(1), p.46.

South Australian nursing and midwifery students have spent the last twelve months transitioning to online monitoring of their clinical experiences at the University of South Australia. 

Overall the project has transformed clinical record keeping in the undergraduate nursing and midwifery programs. We have transitioned from the outdated system where oversight only occurred at specific assessment points throughout a student’s program to a system that allows real-time feedback, monitoring and participation in student learning and stronger partnerships with clinical venues using technology to enhance the student and venue experience.

Hege, I., Tolks, D., Adler, M., & Hartl, A. (2020)  Blended learning: Ten tips on how to implement it into a curriculum in healthcare education.  GMS Journal for Medical Education, 37(5), Doc45.

Blended learning is a meaningful combination of online and face-to-face teaching and learning. In this article we summarize relevant aspects of this format and provide ten tips for educators and curriculum developers on implementing a blended learning curriculum in healthcare education. These general tips are derived from our experience and the available literature and cover the planning and implementation process. 

Yeo, N. & Rowley, J. (2020)  'Putting on a show' Non-placement WIL in the performing arts: Documenting professional rehearsal and performance using eportfolio reflections.  Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 17(4). Available at:https://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol17/iss4/5 

This study explores the utility of employing a student-created experiential narrative ePortfolio as a multi-modal tool for reflective practice in WIL. It does so by examining a case study situated within the performing arts, where WIL discourses are rarely adopted, and few examples are present in the literature. This paper introduces a circular mentoring framework that extends Kolb’s experiential learning model, whereby learning is facilitated through the interchange of roles through rehearsal and reflection. In this study, participants prepared and performed an opera in a professional venue over a five-day period of intense creative studio work. The 2017 and 2018 Inclusion Projectis an innovative teaching and learning opportunity that offered authentic industry-based experience to undergraduate music students in a closely monitored, non-placement WIL setting. Participants (n=18) undertaking a semester long elective, reported their experience through online journaling in an ePortfolio allowing them to create narrative responses. A qualitative analysis using narrative inquiry on the ePortfolio reflections indicated a direct benefit for student’s career readiness as creative artists. 

Farrell, O. (2020)  From Portafoglio to ePortfolio: The evolution of portfolio in Higher Education.  Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2020(1), p19.  DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/jime.574 

This article traces the evolution of the concept of portfolio from the Renaissance to the present day. Over time the meaning of portfolio has evolved from its origins as a case for holding loose papers to other contexts such as finance, government and education. Portfolios have evolved from paper to electronic, from local networks to the world wide web. The decade from 2000–2010 was a period when technology became part of mainstream society and educational technology become part of mainstream higher education, and portfolios spread around the world. A shift in focus has occurred in eportfolio research and practice in the last decade, there has been more emphasis on pedagogy and student learning and less focus on digital technology as it has become ubiquitous. One of the key takeaways from the story of eportfolio adoption is that educators and institutions should adopt a critical perspective to new educational technologies and approaches. Finally, the history of portfolio in higher education shows that the higher education system will continue to gradually evolve, incorporating concepts, technology and approaches that are compatible rather than transformative.

Carpenter, R. L., Reitenauer, V., & Shattuck, A. (2020)  Portland State University: General Education and Equitable Assessment. Urbana, IL: National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, and Campus Labs.

In University Studies at Portland State University, we have made a very intentional effort to pair assessment and faculty support efforts so that faculty are willing to engage in critical reflection about their own practice and in conversation about who our students are and how we can best serve them.  As the signature general education program at Portland State, we serve almost all undergraduates at the university.  We employ a wide range of assessment efforts in order to understand our students' learning and experiences as they move through our programs.  Our current assessment practices do not entirely fulfill our vision of equitable assessment, but we do exemplify these practices in a number of ways.

Sankey, M. (2020) Putting the pedagogic horse in front of the technology cart.  Journal of Distance Education in China, 5, 46-53.

This article explores what a pedagogy first model in learning and teaching in higher education looks like. It suggests that it is the pedagogy (the way we are going to teach) that we need to consider before we decide on the technology that we are going to use to enact our teaching. This paper first explains the different pedagogical approaches that are typically enacted within higher education today and then looks to see how, through that lens, we can choose different forms of technology to support our chosen teaching approaches. There is a strong emphasis placed on providing, active, collaborative and authentic learning experiences, particularly with the aid of technology, to afford those students studying at a distance, or through blended modes with comparable, if not better opportunities for engagement. The paper provides some great examples of what this can look like in practice, in the hope that others will find encouragement and inspiration from this.

Loughlin, W.A., & Cresswell, S.L. (2020)  Online safety quiz for interactive revision reveals areas for laboratory safety development in second-year undergraduate chemistry.  Journal of Chemical Education  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.0c00064 

General safety and chemical training of undergraduate students is typically held at the first-year level. In this technology report, we propose a flexible strategy to improve students’ general knowledge of safety for a second-year inorganic chemistry laboratory. The strategy is composed of an online interactive revision approach through the implementation of a Safety Template quiz, that is easily used on a range of devices and is thus flexible for students and academics. Details of the design process, technical aspects of implementation, and analysis of student submissions for 2018–2019 are presented. Results showed that low numbers of students (18%) achieved 100% correct completion of the Safety Template quiz with their first submission. However, most students (98%) could achieve 100% correct completion by their third submission. Using an online device agnostic approach, implementation of the Safety Template quiz contributed to some improvement of student knowledge and safe behavior in laboratory sessions. A need was identified for students to regularly and actively revise their safety knowledge in upper level undergraduate chemistry, particularly in the areas of basic chemical knowledge of solvents, maintenance of proper PPE, and correct identification of safety equipment. 

Burkhart, S. & Craven, D. (2020) Digital Workbooks in Flipped Nutrition Education: Student Perspectives. Education Sciences, 10(1), 22.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10010022 

Abstract: Nutrition and dietetic (N&D) education is traditionally taught didactically; however, the flipped classroom approach (FCA) is an emerging pedagogical approach in this discipline. Technological tools providing cognitive support enhance learning, particularly when students are engaged. In N&D education, students have reported the FCA as engaging; however, evidence for how best to integrate technologies into the FCA is limited. The aim of this research is to explore undergraduate nutrition and dietetic students’ self-reported perceptions of the use of a digital workbook in nutrition courses designed and delivered using an FCA. A cross-sectional self-administered online survey was utilised to investigate Australian undergraduate student (N = 39) satisfaction, frequency of use, engagement with, and usefulness of a digital workbook. Most students (87%) were satisfied/very satisfied with the digital workbook as a tool for learning, applying and consolidating/revising course content. Most students (95%) agreed the digital workbook was engaging, providing comments related to workbook design, encouraged participation and novelty. Most useful aspects reported were workbook structure, development of a learning artefact, self-directed aspects and convenience, whereas, least useful aspects included technological issues. The use of a digital workbook in N&D education was well received and is an innovative approach to delivering courses taught with an FCA.

2019 Publications

Johnston, B. (2019)  'Soft' skills identified by students who peer-led mathematics computing workshops.  The ANZIAM Journal, 61.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.21914/anziamj.v61i0.15034

Abstract: Increasingly, employers are suggesting that 'soft' skills, such as communication and teamwork, are equally important as 'hard' skills, such as discipline specific knowledge. This makes it imperative for university programs to build in opportunities for students to practise and demonstrate such soft skills. For some years, small groups of students in my second-year numerical methods course have acted as peer-leaders, with each student taking a turn to help run the computer workshops. In 2018, I introduced a PebblePad reflection to give the students the opportunity to identify the skills that they had developed, as well as to reflect on the process. In analysing the students' responses, I found that the students were very positive about the experience and that they were able to articulate a range of soft skills that they had practised and developed during the activity.    

Love, C. & Crough, J. (2019) Beyond engagement: Learning from Students as Partners in curriculum and assessment. In 3rd Euro SoTL ConferenceProceedings, Basque Country, Spain.

Abstract: In the sage words of John Dewey “a problem well put is half-solved” (Dewey, 1938, p.  108)  and  underpins  this  paper.  The  problem:  poor  student  participation  in  classes  led  to  a rethinking of the learning environment and a trial of a Students as Partners (SaP) approach to increase  engagement in  a  second-year  biochemistry  course.  The  initiative  was  implemented through a personal learning environment (PebblePad) but “learning rather than technology [drove  the]innovations”(Overton &Johnson,  2016,  p.  12).  As  partners  in  curriculum  design, students  were invited  to choose  two topics for  the  course  and  negotiate  the  number  of  student-generated  questions  as  assessment  for  learning.  Last,  but  foremost,  students  were  given  the opportunity to provide a reflection of their SaP experience. As a first foray into SaP, we aimed to be inclusive,  collaborative  and forge a connection with students  to extend student learning and knowledge construction, with the student’s voice front and centre in the decision-making.  The collaboration, involving students contributing to the learning experience, coupled with the ability to negotiate the content of the course, provides empowerment or a “buy in” for students. The benefits  of  SaP  to  student  learning  and  educator  reconceptualization  are  documented,  and  a literature review provides further support for SaP. Using a digital platform enabled surprisingly honest, uninhibited and extensive student reflections on the partnership including: “I  liked  the idea of putting the topic choices to a democratic decision, for the cohort to choose what would be the best for them to learn, and as to what would prove the most interesting for the entirety” and “Writing a multiple choice question was harder than I thought it would be, however, it did help highlight the topics  I  understand  well,  and  those  that  may  need  improvement”.  This  trial  of  SaP exceeded expectations and demonstrated its value for student engagement and learning. Moving forward however, SaP as an approach, like academic development, involves iterative practices, informed by lessons learnt Sheffield &Felton, 2018).

Mylrea, M.F., Gupta, T.F., & Glass, B.D. (2019)  Design and evaluation of a novel professional identity development program for pharmacy students. The American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 83(6). ajpe6842. 10.5688/ajpe6842

Objective: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a Professional Identity Program (PIP), based on Self-determination theory (SDT), for commencing pharmacy students.

O'Dwyer, C. (2019)  Riding the carousel: Designing an online enabling program to maximise positive learner engagement and outcomes. In STARS Conference Proceedings, 2019.

Abstract: As the body of research into student attrition and retention has developed, there has been more focus on how universities might craft courses to more flexibly meet the variable commitments of increasingly diverse learners. This paper reports on an initiative where a small scale enabling course was redesigned into a  suite  of modularised microsubjects  offered on a carousel so students can rapidly adjust load or roll partial subject credits into the next study period. Learning components of the course are also free to circulate as mobile learning objects across other areas of the university. The pedagogical framing, educational design elements  and intended impact of the redesign are discussed. The paper also shares some insights about piloting the implementation at  the process level and opens questions about the way that rethinking the traditional bounds of educational offerings can broaden participation and support retention of enabling and other cohorts.

Crough, J., & Love, C. (2019)  Improving student engagement and self-regulated learning through technology-enhanced student partnerships. In ICICTE Proceedings, 2019.

Abstract: Teaching and learning in higher education for the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines are renowned for their challenges. This paper explores how embedding a personal learning platform (PebblePad) through a Students as Partners(SaP)initiative has resulted in a higher degree of student engagement in a second-year biochemistry course and unexpected benefits for students based on reflections about their experience. Adopting a digital platform enabled surprisingly honest, uninhibited and extensive student reflections. In addition, while the coupling of the SaP initiative with educational technology has exceeded expectations, early findings suggest that the process is also contributing positively to students’ self-regulated learning.

Chan, B., Wei, L., & Daicopoulos, M. (2019)  Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: A marriage of innovation in nursing EBP and digital literacy education.  In: 40th International Association of University Libraries Conference, 23-27 June 2019, Perth.

From the Abstract:  Using the analogy of a marriage, this paper will present the case study of a collaborative project between the University Library and the College of Science, Health, Engineering & Education (the ‘wedding party’) to develop a self-paced, interactive online tutorial on database searching and systematic reviews, as applied in nursing practice.

Four key elements went into planning this marriage:

  • Something old: Camtasia (familiar to both Library and College)
  • Something new: LibWizard (a new Library software acquisition) 
  • Something borrowed: PebblePad (managed by the College)
  • Something blue: Digital badging (micro-credentialing)

These elements were integrated into a single digital learning object, which was launched in late January 2019 (the ‘wedding’).

Roberts, P., & Kirk, G. (2019) Introducing an ePortfolio into Practicum-BasedUnits: Pre-service Teachers’ Perceptions of Effective Support. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 44(5), 79-93. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2018v44n5.5

Abstract: ePortfolios are gaining momentum as a preferred way for graduates to demonstrate current and developing capabilities against industry standards. Effective training is essential for new graduates to produce quality and competitive ePortfolios. This research focused on the perspective of pre-service teachers on the effectiveness of learning opportunities provided to increase confidence and skills in developing an ePortfolio in an Australian four-year undergraduate degree. The initial phase of this research employed a survey to examine the perspective of 132 second-year and 105 third-year pre-service teachers. Results indicated that for the second-year cohort there was a minimal increase in the levels of confidence across all areas. In contrast, the third-year pre-service teachers showed some increase in confidence in developing an ePortfolio and understanding its purpose. While the findings from this study emphasised the pre-service teachers’ need for ongoing hands-on support, it also highlighted their reluctance to seek support at an independent level.

McInerney, J., & Druva, R. (2019) Clinical educators’ attitudes towards the use of technology in the clinical teaching environment. A mixed methods study. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences, 66(2), 72-80.  DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmrs.335 

Abstract: In healthcare, there is ongoing flux in expectations for students and practitioners. Establishing integrated systems of monitoring and evidencing students’ development is imperative. With current trends towards the use of technology in tertiary education, online learning environments (OLEs) could constitute more effective evidencing of student progress in the clinical environment. However, there is little research exploring clinical educators' experiences with implementing technology in clinical education.

The research aimed to:

  • Examine clinical educators’ attitudes towards technology and its use in clinical education.
  • Explore clinical educators’ experiences of implementing technologies in a clinical environment.

Ducasse, A.M., & Hill, K. (2019) Developing student feedback literacy using educational technology and the reflective feedback conversation. Practitioner Research in Higher Education, 12(1), 24-37.

Abstract: While its importance for promoting learning is well-documented, feedback can only promote learning to the extent that it is acted on by learners. However, the fact that students may have difficulty understanding feedback or knowing how to act on it and are not necessarily receptive to the feedback provided underscore the importance of including the learner perspective in feedback practices.
This paper describes an intervention which used the ‘reflective feedback conversation’ and educational technologies to provide written feedback to students in University level Spanish language classes. The aim of the study was to improve learner uptake of feedback, develop student agency and self-regulation, increase alignment between teacher and student goals and expectations, and encourage learners to take a more active role in feedback processes as well as reduce teacher workload.

2018 Publications

Devonshire, E. &  Nicholas, M.K. (2018)  Continuing education in pain management: using a competency framework to guide professional development. Pain Reports, 3(5), e688.  DOI: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000000688 

From the Introduction: In this article, we explore the complexities associated with the provision of effective CPD from a pain management perspective. First, we review the growing body of literature discussing the importance of outcome-based education and examine how this relates to the development of expertise. Then, we consider the implications of this theoretical framework for the provision of, and engagement in, CPD and how the core competencies for pain management can be applied in this context. This point may be important with shift towards microcredentialing for CPD activities. We suggest that not only does a competency-based approach provide a useful way for pain educators to conceptualise the design and evaluation of CPD activities, but also it enables pain practitioners to assess the value and utility of CPD opportunities in terms of their own professional development needs. We submit that this is especially relevant for those pain practitioners who have not had the opportunity for formal pain management education in their primary degree or subsequently.

Allan,C.N., Campbell, C. & Green, D. (2018) Nurturing the budding ideas of STEM academics in a university-wide implementation of PebblePad. In ICICTE Proceedings, 2018.

Abstract: New technologies are often being implemented across universities from a top-down perspective,and often this prevents the nurturing of ideas and passions of academic staff.This paper explores a model to support STEM academics implement a new technology that could be used for any technology change. Data from the implementation is reported to confirm the success of this model with significant interest being shown across the STEM disciplines. Results show that employability, scaffolding laboratory skills, developing self-reflection, supporting weekly tasks and program wide initiatives were the major interests chosen by academics within Griffith Sciences.

Campbell, C. & Korf, A. (2018) Supporting student learning through innovative technology in the aviation classroom. In ICICTE Proceedings, 2018.

Abstract: This paper reportson the implementation of the new Flight Procedures Laboratory at Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia. This computer lab has been outfitted with hardwareand software to supportthestudent learning of flight procedures in a practical, task-oriented way.Data has been collected from the first cohort of students using this computerlab with a pre-and post-survey conducted. Student interviews were also conducted. Results from the survey as well as a description ofthe lab setupareincluded in this paper along withinformation about how this type of teaching facility may help our future pilots.

Howell, S., Tansley, G., Jenkins, G. & Hall, W. (2018)  An integrated professional practice and employability initiative in an engineering undergraduate program. In Proceedings of the 14th International CDIO Conference, 2018.

Abstract: To attain accreditation, Engineering programmes in Australia must meet Engineers Australia’s Stage 1 Competency Standards. In addition to the academic criteria, there is an expectation that students meet professional practice requirements. In the School of Engineering and Built Environment at Griffith University, the professional practice requirement is that students “must complete a minimum of 12 weeks (60 days) of approved experience in an engineering practice environment (or a satisfactory alternative) during their degree studies.” While there have been several opportunities  for  scaffolded  student-industry  interaction  in  earlier  years  of  the programme,  the  opportunities  were  not  integrated  into  the  programme, were inconsistent across the disciplines, and not coherently articulated as professional practice and employability opportunities for students.The result was that some students entered the final year of the programme  without sufficient  industry  internship  experience,  or  exposure to  industry professionals, or a lack of understanding of professional expectations and practice.The paper discusses the introduction  and  implementation  of an integrated Professional  Practice  and Employability Skills stream within the programme to improve graduate employability and better support students as they develop into engineering professionals.The paper also describes a method for monitoring and assessing professional practice supported by a reflective ePortfolio.

Novoa, M. (2018)  Innovating industrial design curriculum in a Knowledge-Based and participatory digital era.. Design and Technology Education: an International Journal, 23(3), 151-201.


Abstract: This article narrates on three years participatory research between 2012 and 2014 and its formulation for a 2016 undergraduate industrial design curriculum launch. It contributes to design culture transformation since there are leading breakthrough education exemplars but lack of pathways to get there by conservative courses and institutions. The course proposes an individual and collective knowledge creation model through social constructivism and constructionism that recognises its place in time and history. It intends catching up with a profession transformed beyond a digital Bauhaus manifesto that bridges physical and digital artefacts, space and environments through quality of experiences, intelligence, networks and relations. Data and practice supported pedagogy redefinition from master-apprentice and teacher-centred skill transmission models to heutagogy and paragogy. The new approach required habitus change from a traditional goods-centred discipline to human-centred focus, critical design and making, design heuristics, CDIO (conceiving, designing, implementing, operating) and STEAM (science, technology, arts, mathematics) frameworks. Participants worked empathetically to contextualise, problem frame and solve by crossing boundaries between disciplines, institutions, industries, and students’ background and society. Research and practice promoted new forms of industrial design creation happening in physical and digital coexisting spaces of being. The curriculum expressed through units that evolved around an e-curriculum component working as a digital spine that progressed from standard social networking and industry collaboration to international design studio and design factory projects. It became foundation for future physical-digital industrial design artefacts, human computer interaction, machine learning, and systems built on hacker culture, shared information, free open-source software and hardware.

Pountney, R. & Grasmeder, A. (2018)  Building bridges - enhancing mentoring skills, knowledge and practice through an online course. CollectivEd, 3, 50–56.

Abstract: This paper outlines the rationale for an open online course for teachers, Enhance your Mentoring Skills, aimed at addressing the UK National Mentor Standards (2016), and describes how this was put into practice. The professional needs of school-based mentors and how these were met in the design for learning are examined alongside a consideration of the efficacy of the curriculum and associated pedagogy of the course. Drawing on the evaluations of 73 teachers who have completed the course in 2017 and their contributions to individual and communal learning activities the paper deǀelops an impression of mentoring practice that represents mentors' theories-in -use. Teachers' accounts of the value of the course suggest considerable effect on their levels of confidence and some evidence of impact on their mentoring practice. However, findings also indicate that participants' understanding of their mentoring role lacks a clearly defined model for mentoring relationships and that mentors welcome greater opportunity to reflect on their practice and to share this with others discursively. The paper discusses the extent to which the course offers a bridge between mentors' wishes and intentions and how they are realised in practice. ‘Recommendations for future iterations of the course are made, with proposals to develop this case study further, as an instrumental form of theory building (Stake, 1995), in order to better understand how mentors understand and develop their practice.

Rowley, J. & Munday, J. (2018)  The evolved landscape of ePortfolios: Current values and purposes of academic teachers and curriculum designers. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 9(1), 3-22.

Abstract: As ePortfolios are increasingly being used in universities to help develop self-reflective practitioners, academic teachers and students need to develop the skills and processes required to implement them. During 2015, a series of webinars was presented by a cross-university team to provide professional development for academic teachers, curriculum designers and other staff interested in initiating or extending ePortfolio learning in their institutions. A survey was conducted with participants to gauge the depth of understanding and use of ePortfolios in degree programs. The survey aimed to clarify participants’ perception of the value of ePortfolio tools in Australian universities, and to identify future directions for developing knowledge and learning related to ePortfolios. Through the survey questions participants were able to provide information anonymously about their knowledge and use of ePortfolios. Respondents were also invited to be interviewed. Nine interviews, conducted in 2016, explored ePortfolio-users’ opinions of the learning tool. The results indicate that teachers’ use of the ePortfolio as a learning tool has evolved beyond that reported in the current literature. Furthermore, when used for reflection, assessment and documenting professional standards, the ePortfolio tool contributes to the students’ development of skills required to transition to future careers.

2017 Publications

2017      Jo Byrd. Challenges to implementing a new technology in teacher education. phase one: ’meaningful’ digital reflections. Teacher Education Advancement Network Journal, 9(2), 2017.

Abstract:  This paper describes the challenges of introducing a digital tool to trainee teachers.  A group of nineteen undergraduate students studying primary education and in their third year of a four year course was introduced to PebblePad5. PebblePad is an online tool which is not new in the world of ITE.  However, the latest version has more useful features and is less ‘clunky’ than older versions.  The students each had their own private account where eventually they would be expected to store all of their placement files, add multi-modal content and then choose to share some or all of this content publically or by personal invitation via email.  One of the benefits for us as an ITE provider is that we can view our students’ files electronically and comment on them without necessarily making the one/two hour round trip to the placement school.  Although students used some technology, this research shows that students need more training in using technology competently in the workplace setting. Phase One of the project was to encourage the students to write their reflections on placement digitally.  It was hoped that the students would be enthusiastic about using PebblePad and I would see an improvement in the levels of engagement with the reflective process and thus, the quality of teaching and learning as a result of this.  Data obtained from questionnaires and a focus group indicate that PebblePad was viewed as a useful tool, but training issues and time constraints of the project meant it was not as successful for this cohort as was hoped.  This paper discusses the issues that arose and the plan to overcome these barriers in the next phase of the implementation of PebblePad. 


2017      Ron J. M. Knevel, Sarah Down, Priscilla Trahar, and Goksu Dines. Achieving a 360-degree feedback framework using PebblePad in oral health and dentistry. In Owning, supporting and sharing the journey, eportfolios Australia forum 2017, 2017.


Abstract:  This study investigates oral health therapy and dentistry student’s perception about using PebblePad to enhance their learning in a clinical environment. Methods: Oral health students and dentistry students were asked to complete an anonymous online survey; 89 students were invited to participate, 57 students completed the survey (response rate 64%). The survey contained forced response questions using a 5-point Likert scale. Respondents were invited to provide clarifying comments for some of the questions. Results: The majority of students surveyed were positive about the PebblePad digital logbook. Students appreciate how the logbook improves tracking of their progress and supports them to identify areas of concern. The ability to read feedback from clinical educators and to refer back to it at any point in time benefits their learning. Students suggested several areas for improvement: the importance of example entries, reducing weekly diaries to monthly blogs and logbooks and more information about how to write appropriate reflections. Conclusion: The 360-degree feedback framework in PebblePad aims to position students as active learners engaged in regular reflection. Feedback is provided by the teaching team, external clinical practitioners, peers, patients and the students themselves (self-assessment). This ensures that students have multiple opportunities to reflect and receive feedback in a variety of settings. The digital logbook in PebblePad is an effective tool to improve tracking the progress of oral health and dentistry students and to encourage reflective practice. This study shows that the acceptance and appreciation for the digital logbook improves if embedded in a more formal competency based curriculum. 

2017      Jennifer Munday. An embedded ePortfolio in a master’s degree: Is it working? International Journal of ePortfolio, 7(2):175–185, 2017.

Abstract:  ePortfolios are embedded into several degree programs at Charles Sturt University in Australia to maximize the value of ePortfolio purposes for students working in or towards a profession. ePortfolio design has been embedded into a Master of Education curriculum for five years. Graduates of this degree program are classroom teachers, and some have leadership positions in education.  The aim of this article is to report findings of a research project investigating continued use of the Master of Education ePortfolio processes; it ascertains whether the ePortfolio capstone task was an effective means for students to: draw together key elements of their study within the Masters program; and to reflect and identify changes in philosophy, thinking, or practice in professional work. Finally, the project studies whether recognizing the skills they used to create the ePortfolio encouraged the students to use those skills with their peers and colleagues or in teaching situations.  The research took a Case Study approach, collecting graduate interviews and capstone ePortfolios.  Analysis provided details about effective aspects and processes that embedded the ePortfolio into the higher degree program.  ePortfolio curriculum and design require considerable planning if academic educators are to support the use of ePortfolios in Higher Education.


2017      Gail Ring, Chelsea Waugaman, and Bob Brackett. The value of career ePortfolios on job applicant performance: Using data to determine effectiveness. International Journal of ePortfolio, 7(2):225–236, 2017.

Abstract:  This research project investigated how the development of an ePortfolio, combined with ePortfolio pedagogies, impacted the interview performance of undergraduate students as they prepared to enter the  job market.  Participants were students in the Health Sciences and Biosystems Engineering programs at Clemson University, enrolled in ePortfolio-developing capstone or internship classes in the 2014-2015 or 2015-2016 academic years. Participants were randomly assigned to complete mock interviews after engaging in different interventions, such as cover letter and resume development andePortfolio   pedagogy.   A one-way ANOVA   revealed that students demonstrated statistically significant higher quality interview skills after engaging in ePortfolio pedagogy mentoring sessions, compared to students who received limited or no interventions. ePortfolios created in 2014, without the study’s ePortfolio pedagogy training, were compared against the portfolios from this research project. T-test analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in overall ePortfolio quality in the courses utilizing the study’s ePortfolio pedagogy.


2017      Neil M. Speirs, Simon C. Riley, and Gavin McCabe. Student-Led individually created courses: using structured reflection within experiential learning to enable widening participation students transitions through and beyond higher education. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice, 5(2), 2017.

Abstract:  The notion of students as partners in the co-creation of curricula and indeed co-evaluating or co-grading has shown positive outcomes that include increased engagement and motivation (Cook-Sather, Bovill, & Felten, 2014; Cook-Sather 2014; Cook-Sather & Motz-Storey 2016). In order for a student to be a pedagogical co-designer or indeed a change agent it is reasonable to suggest that they must already possess a substantial level of social and cultural capital (Woolcock, 2001) to enable this engagement. However, students from lower socio-economic status backgrounds are more likely to lack such capital and to not understand the “rules of the game” (Bourdieu, 1990; Bourdieu, 1984). In this situation, the value or pay-off of being involved in such co-design in terms of attribute development through a novel sense of experiential learning, may not be fully appreciated. Therefore, there are likely limits to the extent that co-creation and radical collegiality (Fielding, 1999), will lead to the democratisation of curricula and enhance students’ experiences, irrespective of social background. Despite the barriers outlined above, Student-Led, Individually-Created Courses (SLICCs) are an emerging area of practice at the University of Edinburgh through which widening participation (WP) students are successfully being engaged in the graduate attributes and employability agendas and ultimately in the pedagogical co-design of their own credit-bearing curriculum. SLICCs provide a flexible reflective-learning framework for experiential learning that enables individuals and groups of students to work across disciplinary and structural boundaries. These courses broaden the scope of what is considered to be ‘curricular’, bringing what was previously co- and extra-curricular into the credit-bearing provision. This paper will explore how WP students are engaged in the radical collegiality of SLICCs, despite the many barriers related to capital, through a rational pedagogy as outlined by Bourdieu and Passeron (1979). 


2016      John L. Kertesz. Three key conditions to revitalise an ePortfolio program in response to increasing regulation of teacher education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(8), 2016.

Abstract:  This paper describes a study undertaken within the education faculty of a mid-sized university in response to the recommendations of the Teacher Education Ministerial Advisory Group (TEMAG) (2014) that initial teacher education (ITE) graduates emerge with an evidence-based professional standards-focused portfolio of teaching competency. In concluding that current teacher educator usage of, and attitudes to, ePortfolios limit the capacity of this particular faculty to respond to this challenge, the paper proposes three critical conditions to revitalise a stalled ePortfolio program and prepare for an increasingly demanding future. In sharing this experience, the paper seeks to support discussion of how teacher educators can respond best to the professional portfolio challenge in an environment of increasing regulation.


2016      Candyce Reynolds and Melissa S. Pirie. Creating an eportfolio culture on campus through platform selection and implementation. Peer review, 18(3), 2016.

Introduction: Given the initial excitement in the early 2000s about the potential of eportfolios for advancing integrative learning and authentic assessment in higher education, one might imagine that eportfolios would be ubiquitous in the academy, replacing final exams, cumbersome assessment processes, resumes, and even transcripts. The reality is much more meager. A recent Educause survey (Dahlstrom, Walker, and Dziuban 2013) reports that 57 percent of higher education campuses have “made some use” of eportfolios, but only at a program or course level. However, the promise of eportfolios as a broadly used tool for enhancing student learning and advancing authentic assessment is yet to be seen. The rate of eportfolio adoption follows Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovation theory, which describes the process of adopting of new technologies over time with the standard bell curve illustrating the process. The theory asserts that innovation starts with innovators, of course, and that, by definition, they are limited in numbers. The next group to follow a new technology are the early adopters.

It is at this stage that many campus eportfolio projects get stuck. A few enthusiastic stalwarts rally their colleagues and harangue their students to adopt this amazing learning tool but often end up continuing to talk with each other at that next eportfolio faculty development event. The theory posits that there is a breaking point, called the chasm, that must be gotten through to get to the pinnacle—early and late majority adoption of technology. (At the tail end of the technology adoption model are the laggards.) The question becomes, how do we spread the use of eportfolios beyond our innovators and early adopters? This article describes one institution’s current attempt to move a long-standing practice of eportfolios to a majority of users, along with what we have learned in our journey. Perhaps our lessons will help those who also wish to move their eportfolio use in higher education forward.


2016      Joy Robbins and John Dermo. Freeing the hoop jumpers: Eportfolio assessment to raise learner engagement on PgCert HE programmes. Student Engagement in Higher Education Journal, 1(1), 2016.     

Abstract:  The idea of professional development has gradually become an accepted and established part of teaching in higher education (Dearing, 1997; DfES, 2003; Browne, 2010). It is now the norm for new university teaching staff in the UK to complete a postgraduate certificate in Higher Education Practice, Learning and Teaching in HE, or Academic Practice as recommended or even mandatory initial professional development (Laycock & Shrives, 2009). While these certificate programmes are now well-established in the sector and are valued for raising the profile of university teaching and educational scholarship (Shrives, 2012), it is not uncommon for learners to view them as a hoop-jumping exercise, and therefore adopt strategic approaches to get through the programme, resulting in disappointing learning gains. We present an analysis of the barriers to engagement that can cause PgCert learners to take such a hoop jumping approach to their programme, drawing from policy, literature, and participant views. We then propose a teaching and assessment model to address these barriers using an eportfolio approach. While eportfolio use is not new in PgCert programmes and staff development, for example being used notably at York St. John University where learners create a portfolio to evidence how they meet the UK Professional Standards Framework (UKPSF) and use it as an ‘aide memoire’ in a summatively assessed dialogue (Asghar, 2014), the challenges to engagement for our learners that the current study found lead us to propose a different portfolio approach. There is of course no single right way to design deep learning into a PgCert programme, but we hope that the research-informed eportfolio model presented here may be useful to other practitioners who seek, like us, to remove the hoops from reflective teaching practice.


2016      Pauline Roberts. Reflection: A renewed and practical focus for an existing problem in teacher education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(7), 2016.

Abstract:  Reflection has been a component of teacher education programs for many years. The introduction of the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) and the National Quality Standard (NQS) into Western Australian schools appear to have brought a renewed focus to this. For universities involved in teacher education, reflection remains a complex construct that requires scaffolding and nurturing. The question remains, however, how to effectively do this.

This paper provides a practical focus to developing reflection by outlining strategies that address this issue. Through the scaffolded implementation of an Action Research project for pre-service teachers, this research project identified a number of key recommendations. Firstly, there is a need for a strong model of reflection to be used consistently across degree programs; secondly, reflective processes should be embedded in practice; and finally, universities need to be mindful of the assessment of reflection and the impact that this assessment has on the reflective process.


Portland State University: General Education and Equitable Assessment.

The promise of PebblePad for Dynamic Learning

Using educational technology to support students' real world learning

Using educational technology to support students' real world learning